TOJSAT - Volume 11 - Issue 3 - July 2021

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A STUDY ON FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPANIES LISTED UNDER NATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE

Gunjan Kumar, Vandana Mehrotra

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The security market is very dynamic and volatile in nature, where prediction plays a pivotal role for an investor to invest in this market. Risk and return are two sides of a same coin, where both the aspects influence each other for an investment. Hence, understanding the risk involved in the investment helps to maximize returns. This study helps the investors to examine and compare the assessments along with the market and to identify the company which would be preferable to invest based on their risk-taking ability. The primary objective of the study was to assess the risk and return of the eight NSE listed financial services companies along with a secondary objective to compare individual company stock volatility before and after the event of demonetization. The tools and techniques used for analysis were Mean, Standard deviation, Beta, Correlation, Covariance and T-test. Analysis was done by using the closing prices of each month for all the selected companies (Bajaj Finserv, HDFC, ICICI, Axis, Cholamandalam investment and finance, State bank of India, Mahindra & Mahindra, Max finance services) for a specified time period. The findings of the study were that Bajaj Finserv had the highest returns amongst the selected eight companies and the volatility of all the selected eight companies had no difference before and after the event of demonetization. The overall study suggested that investors should always be ready to face any unforeseen events. To be on a safer side and to minimize the severity of loss during such events, various preventive measures like assessing the risk and return should be done well in advance. 

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ACCREDITED PROJECT EFFICIENCY OF STATE UNIVERSITIES IN TURKEY

Hasan TOSUN

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One of the most important functions of universities is to produce knowledge by making scientific projects and to ensure the transfer of the knowledge produced to different sectors. Universities in developed countries have a very high level of social contribution in this area.   Within the scope of this study, the project numbers and budgets of the state universities in Turkey, supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and the General Directorate of Science and Technology of the Ministry of Science, Industry and technology were evaluated. In short, these are described as “TUBITAK project” and  “San-TEZ project”, respectively. The numbers and budgets of these projects in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 were examined on the basis of University categories. The study has shown that averagely forty percent of the accredited projects produced by universities in Turkey belongs to nine universities (İstanbul, İstanbul Teknik, Ankara, Ege, Karadeniz Teknik, Orta Dogu Teknik, Ataturk, Hacettepe and Bogazici), which are in the A-category according to the year of establishment. This proportion increases further in favor of A-Category universities, when considered the efficiency of projects.

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CONTRIBUTION OF KKHSOU TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: A SWOT ANALYSIS

Ritimoni Bordoloi

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Access to higher education is still a dream for millions of people residing in India. In the context of higher education, the average Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Asia is more than 30% where the country like China has more than 48% GER in tertiary education; India has 26.3% and Bangladesh 17%. Besides the issues of GER and provision of quality education, the need for adequate higher education avenues or institutional set up against the demand of the population, achievement of global learning by the people in rural and urban areas, providing equal access to learning, justice to cost benefit analysis, research and innovations, use of educational technology, quality and adequate funds for expansion of higher education are some of the other issues challenging the creation of the much required knowledge enabled population in a country like India. In fact, it is the right time to see whether Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is able to mitigate this situation and bring the educational opportunities to all so that they can realise their potentialities and can maintain a decent standard of living. Thus, the basic objective of the paper is to find out the challenges of the prevailing higher education in general and ODL in India in particular. In order to meet this objective, emphasis has been laid on how Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University—the only State Open University of North East India, has rendered a significant impact on the educational landscape of a state like Assam in its ten years of existence, in providing quality education to the people of this region. Finally, through this paper, an attempt has been made to make a SWOT analysis on the activities of the university that have already rendered a great service to human resource development in the North Eastern part of India. 

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SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF NON-SELF-ADJOINT ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS

Reza Alizadeh, Ali Sameripour

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The study of non-self-adjoint differential operators is a historical issue. Before and until now, most studies of operator theory have been about self-adjoint operators. But non-self-adjoint operators have recently found many applications in other sciences. These operators have received much attention in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Because there is no general spectral theory for these operators, it is more difficult to study these operators than the self-adjoint type. The spectrum of these operators is usually unstable and their resolvent is unpredictable. In this paper, a second-order non-self-attached differential operator is considered and its spectral properties and solvent estimation are studied. This operator is much more common than second-tier operators such as Storm-Liouville and Schrodinger.

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THE THERMODYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF THE USAGE OF PYRENE AS A CARBON SUPPORT WITH PLATINUM CATALYST IN DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

Caglar CELİK BAYAR

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The anode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) includes methanol oxidation reaction which produces 6 moles of electrons per methanol molecule (the overall oxidation reaction: CH3OH + H2O → CO2 + 6H+ + 6e-). This reaction is thought to occur in four steps with Pt catalyst producing Pt-COads species at the last step which plays an important role in poisoning of the carbon support (CH3OH + Pt → Pt-COads + 4H+ + 4e-). Generally, a second transition metal catalyst is used to overcome the surface poisoning problem. The second metal catalyst reacts with the main Pt catalyst to produce 2 more moles of electrons and converts COads to free CO2 (Pt-COads + M-H2Oads → Pt-M + CO2 + 2H+ + 2e-). Therefore, the Pt-COads species and the carbon support that holds it are the two key points. Pyrene, with its four fused benzene rings, was not used as a carbon support in the literature to the best of the knowledge. It has a D2h symmetry point group which means that two of its benzene rings can act as binding surfaces for Pt-CO. (Note that CO is the reaction intermediate in CH3OH oxidation.) Therefore, the present study included the calculation of the interaction Gibbs free energies (∆Goint) of the two possible complexes, Pyrene-PtCO Complex-1 and Pyrene-PtCO Complex-2 from their components of Pyrene-Ptads and CO. (In the reaction mechanism, first Pt is adsorbed on the carbon surface and then CH3OH is bound to Pt. After that, CH3OH is converted into CO by oxidation reaction.) DFT M06L/LANL2DZ theoretical level was used for the calculations. The results showed that ∆Goint of the two complexes had negative signs which denoted that both formations were spontaneous. ∆Goint of Complex-2 was -230.8 kJ/mole and was found to be about 25 kJ/mole more negative than that of Complex-1 (-206.1 kJ/mole). One of the reasons of this result might be explained like that: The calculated NICS(1) aromaticity value of the benzene ring to which Pt(CO)ads was bound in Complex-2 was found to be higher compared to Complex-1. As a result, binding to the more aromatic ring produced the more stable complex. The other reason was thought to be the electrostatic charge distribution on the optimized pyrene ring which was obtained from the CHELPG analyses at the same level of theory. Complex-2 had a greater negative electrostatic charge on the benzene ring to which Pt(CO)ads was bound compared to Complex-1. It was also concluded that the more stable complex, Complex-2, would need more energy for Pt-CO bond breakage and to combine with the second metal catalyst with respect to Complex-1 in a DMFC assembly.

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