TOJSAT - Volume 8 - Issue 2 - April 2018

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A CASE STUDY OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER STRUCTURE

Aykut EROL, Zülküf KAYA, Erdal UNCUOĞLU, Hacı Bekir KARA

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Abstract:

A wastewater treatment plant named as Kızıltepe Wastewater Treatment Plant,
construction area is located at the city of Mardin and district of Kızıltepe. The purpose of this
study is to design the deep foundation system composed of vertical pile elements for the
anaerobic digester structures planned to build in the construction area of Waste Water
Treatment Plant. The pile group designed is subjected to vertical and lateral loads. The weight
of the digester structure, waste weight containing in the digester structure and the foundation
weight have been considered as vertical loads. However, the wind and earthquake loads have
been taken into account as lateral loads. The experimental studies both laboratory and in-situ
have been performed to obtain the geotechnical parameters which are necessary for the design
of the foundation system of anaerobic digester structures. The boring logs including N values
obtained from Standart Penetration Tests (SPT) and results of the laboratory studies belonging
to the borehole drilled in the anaerobic digester structures construction area have been used for
this study.

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A NEW HYBRID DECISION MAKING MODEL TO OPTIMIZE MACHINING OPERATIONS

Mehmet Alper Sofuoğlu

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Multi criteria decision making models (MCDM) are extensively used in material and
process selection in engineering. In this study, a novel hybrid decision making model is
developed. Best-Worst (BWM) and entropy methods are combined and hybridized with
Reference Ideal Method. The model is tested in a face milling case study taken from literature.
The developed model produced similar results with literature. The proposed model can be used
by engineers and operators in manufacturing environment.

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A STUDY ON CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF DIFFERENT AL MATRIX COMPOSITES

Kadir GUNDOGAN, Dilan KOKSAL, Alperen Refik Bilal ÖZSARI

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Different Al matrix metal compozites’ s corrosion behavior is studied as literature
rewiev. Al 6061 and Al 7075 matrix with SiC reinforcement are examined by using literature.
SiC reinforcement action of compozite corrosion is identified by experiments. Optimum
reinforcement volume rate is detected. Also, different method is examined for corrosion
behavior. Besides, Al 2024 matrix metal compozites’ s corrosion experiments which different
method used, are submitted.

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AN ERROR ANALYSIS OF SEQUENCE-TO-SEQUENCE NEURAL NETWORKS ON ENGLISH PHONETIC ALPHABET CONVERSION

Kong Joo Lee, Jee Eun Kim

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English words present inconsistency between their spelling and pronunciation, which
requires phonetic alphabet for accurate pronunciation. However, each English dictionary not
only lists a different set of pronunciation from one another, but also adopts a phonetic alphabet
represented with different notation. These differences in pronunciation and phonetic notation
confuse English language learners. A recent research on automatic conversion of different
pronunciations shows a result with the accuracy between 74.5 ~ 89.6% produced utilizing
sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model, a popular mechanism used in deep-learning.
This research suggests an error analysis conducted on the results of automatic conversion of
different pronunciations. The errors are bidimensional. One dimension is classified into types
of segment and suprasegment: consonant, vowel, stress errors. The other describes the types of
errors including addition, deletion and alternation. The purposes of the error analysis can be
summarized as follows: 1) to survey different phonetic alphabet systems for English and figure
out the characteristics of each system, 2) to verify various pronunciation rules and the context
information identified in automatically converted data, and finally 3) to suggest a guideline for
organizing a training set to be used for learning the seq2seq model in automatic pronunciation
conversion.

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ASYMPTOTICALLY

Tunay BİLGİN

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In this study, we define

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CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOSTABLE

Fatma MATPAN BEKLER, Seçil YALAZ, Reyhan Gül GÜVEN, Omer ACER, Kemal GÜVEN

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The thermostable

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CHEMICAL MODIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION OF CELLULOSE-BASED NATURAL FIBERS

Mohammad H. AL-SAYAH, Mariha ISLAM, Nada A. AS'AD, Mohammed S. MOHAMMED, Aya H.MOSTAFA

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The introduction of heavy metal ions into aquatic environment by industrial waste,
agricultural waste, and natural disposals is a major environmental concern. Several methods such
as precipitation, reverse osmosis, and bioremediation have been used for removal of heavy metals
from wastewater and environmental samples but such techniques are expensive, time-consuming,
or results in yielding toxic chemicals. Alternatively, adsorption is a preferred method as it combines
both environmental and economic advantages. This paper presents the development of adsorbents
by chemical modification of cellulose-based natural fibers. Cotton fibers, which are rich in
cellulose, were modified by tethering different ligands (including cystamine and polyamines) and
measured their efficacy in removing heavy metals (such as Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)
ions) from stimulated contaminated water. The fibers were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDS, and
TGA and their efficacy for removal of heavy metals was investigated using stimulated polluted
water with either Cd(II), Hg(II), or Pb(II) metal ions. The results show that the metal-removal
capacity of cystamine-modified cotton increased by ~200% and of polyamines-modified cotton by
~400% for Cd(II), and Pb(II) metal ions.

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COMPARISON OF THE VIBRATION PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS AA2124/SiC/25p and ALUMINUM 6061-T6

Yahya BOZKURT, Ersin TOPTAŞ, Sezgin ERSOY

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Vibration characteristics of 2124A/SiC/25P metal matrix composites and aluminum
6061-T6 materials are compared with FEA. These materials, which are widely used in the
aircraft industry is different vibration characteristics. These materials are usually subjected to
dynamic loadings in aerospace. Vibration analysis that is determined from stress and frequency
is important vibration analysis is important. Therefore, in this study, vibration response of two
different materials were examined. Vibration analysis using a distributed point and forced
damped was performed in the MSC ACTRAN program. Metal matrix composites according to
the aluminum alloy were found to be more stable against vibration resistance.

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DEPOLLUTION OF OLIVE MILL WASTEWATER THROUGH ELECTROCOAGULATION AND ADVANCED OXIDATION

Hoor JALO, Samir EL HAJJAJI, Abdelkrim OUARDAOUI

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The goal of the Research described in this paper is to treat Olive Mill Wastewater
(OMWW) to cause its decolorization, thus enabling its safe and legal release in main water
streams. To this end, two different methods were tested on samples of OMWW collected from
Ain Taoujdate, a small town that is located 25 km to the south of Fez, Morocco. These samples
were freshly diluted by a factor of 20 prior to a treatment by either electrocoagulation or the
photo-Fenton process, a type of advanced oxidation. It was found that an electrocoagulation
treatment of two hours, at 22V DC with aluminum plates, was satisfactory to get nearly clear
and colorless water (93% decolorization). A phenolic content reduction by 92.4% was obtained
using this same technique. Photo-Fenton was tested with the use of H2O2/Fe(II), O2/Fe(II), and
H2O2/O2/Fe(II) at a wavelength of 254 nm. With this technique, the best operating conditions
afforded 78% decolorization. A discussion on the viability of each technique concludes this
study.

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DESIGN, MANUFACTURING AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE APPARATUS

Alper ERGÜN

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Turkey has a variety of heat sources between 90 and 125 ˚C which are not suitable
for power generation. These sources are waste sources or used only for heating purposes.
Whereas these sources can be used to produce electricity with Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC) so
that economic recovery may be obtained. Because of technical difficulties and non-economic
situation to utilize low temperature heat traditionally constitutes challenging. Traditionally,
steam turbine is used in power generation. But it requires high temperature and pressure for
proper operation. Preferred technology at low temperatures is the Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC).
The ORC technology uses liquids which boils at lower temperatures than water, less risk of
corrosion and high molecular weight instead of high pressure water and steam. In this study,
low-temperature waste heat source ORC system is designed, produced and used in power
generation. Experimental studies were performed using R134a and R22 refrigerant in the
produced system. At the end of the experimental studies, the performance of the system were
determined.

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DEVELOPING MICROGRID CRITERIAS AND PROPER DATA PACKAGE FOR CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF MULTI MICROGRIDS

Sedat ERSÖZ

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In this study, Microgrid (MG) Characteristics are defined for perform an effective
and fair management of multi microgrids system. A research study has been conducted in
order to establish data package for description of MGs. Criteria of MG characteristics for
determining an approach not only protects the interests of the energy grid, both the interests of
energy grid and microgrid are mutually used an approach that protects. In this paper, the
justification of selected criteria discussed and the data package for these criteria were
analyzed how much data length is needed in data package. Also the appropriateness of the
communication technology of the generated sample data package is examined. The work is
expected to be made an important contribution to the creation of microgrid standards.

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ENVIRONMENT OF CULTURE AND ART IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN 19th CENTURY

Nesli Tuğban YABAN

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Westernisation and modernisation of the Ottoman Empire began to burgeon in the 17th
century; it became evident in the 18th century and the 19th century witnessed the most intense
interaction and the exact reconstruction process. New way of living which was originated in Europe
and representatives thereof became influential as guides and determinants of reconstruction process
in the Ottoman Empire. It is possible to point out that the Ottoman Empire which got closer to
France for handling military problems, to England for industrialisation purposes and to Italy for
architecture and arts had intense communication and the resulting interaction with European states
in the course of reconstruction process.
This study aims to give information about the social, cultural and artistic environment in the
Ottoman Empire during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909).

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EXTRACTION OF THE ACOUSTIC FEATURES OF SEMI-VOWELS IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE

Özlem BATUR DİNLER, Nizamettin AYDIN

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Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to extract the acoustic features of semi-vowels in the
Kurdish language spoken in Turkey at the phoneme level. For this purpose, voice recordings
were collected from 42 adult speakers who know how to read and write in Kurdish. The isolated
voice signals of the data set generated with these recordings were obtained by Praat software.
The acoustic features of the isolated semi-vowels obtained were acquired by extracting the F1,
F2, F3 and F4 formant frequencies in the Matlab environment using the LPC method.
Semi-vowels, the phonetic analysis of which was examined, were then addressed with vowels
at the end of this study, and their similarities and differences in terms of the phonetic feature
were revealed according to the examination results of the analyzed data. This is the first study in
which the acoustic analysis of Kurdish semi-vowels was performed. This study will contribute
to the researchers who will carry out studies on Kurdish voice processing systems in the future

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FACIAL COMPONENT SEGMENTATION USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

Gozde YOLCU, Ismail OZTEL, Serap KAZAN, Cemil OZ, Filiz BUNYAK

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Facial components are important for many face image analysis applications. Facial
component segmentation is a challenging task due to variations in illumination conditions, pose,
scale, skin color etc. Deep learning is a novel branch of machine learning, very efficient in
solving complex problems. In this study, we developed a deep Convolutional Neural Network
(CNN) to automatically segment facial components in face images. The network has been
trained with face images in Radboud face database. Training labels have been created using
Face++ SDK. The developed CNN produces a segmentation mask where mouth, eyes, and
eyebrows components of the face are marked as foreground. We have focused on these
components because they can include very important information for facial image analysis
studies such as facial expression recognition. The segmentation success rate of the study is
98.01 according to average accuracy.

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INFLUENCE OF INITIAL VELOCITY ON TRAJECTORIES OF A CHARGED PARTICLE IN UNIFORM PARALLEL ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

Siti Nurul KHOTIMAH, Sparisoma VIRIDI, WIDAYANI, KHAIRURRIJAL

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Abstract:

An exploratory study on the trajectory of a charged particle moving in parallel
uniform electric and magnetic fields has been carried out where electromagnetic radiation of an
accelerated particle is not considered. A general solution for the particle motion equation is
derived analytically using a simple method by applying the second Newton’s law to the Lorentz
force acting on the charged particle. The trajectory is a circular helix with time-dependent pitch.
Specific solutions are obtained by varying the initial particle velocity in the absence of electric
field. The result shows two basic patterns of trajectories: circular and circular helix with
constant pitch. Parameters such as radius and helical pitch for circular helix trajectory as well as
radius and its center position for circle trajectory of cyclotron motion can be obtained.

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INFORMATION SECURITY EDUCATION: WATCHING YOUR STEPS IN CYBERSPACE

Tharindu SENANAYAKE, Suchinthi FERNANDO

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This paper discusses the importance of providing at least a basic education in
information security to all users of any information and communication system, regardless of
whether they are information technology professionals, students of computer or information
sciences, or not. It explores how any person sharing and communicating their information
assets with others could be subject to information security threats, and studies certain known
cyber-criminals and black-hat hackers, and their cyber-actions and cyber-crimes in order to
depict the importance of acquiring an understanding and awareness of information security, so
that users of information and communication systems may prepare and strengthen themselves
against imminent information security threats.

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MACHINE LEARNING APPLICATIONS IN DETECTION OF THE BREAST CANCER: MINI-REVIEW

Furkan ESMERAY, İbrahim Hanifi ÖZERCAN

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The early diagnosis of the breast cancer has become imperative in cancer research
because it may facilitate the subsequent clinical treatment of patients. Separation of breast
cancer patients into normal, low and high groups has become important in bioinformatics and
biomedical fields. This has led to an increase in the practice of machine learning (ML) methods
for early breast cancer diagnosis in the literature. Machine learning methods have been used to
model the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. ML methods have been used to detect
complex cell characteristics in breast cancer images. (ANN), Bayesian Networks (BNS),
Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Decision Trees (DT), Linear
Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Sammon mapping, Stochastic Neighbor New algorithms have
been proposed using various machine learning techniques. Although machine learning
techniques for breast cancer have been widely applied and ultimately yielded high classification
performances, an appropriate level of validation is required to take these methods into account
in daily clinical treatment and practice. In this study, the methods used in algorithms for early
diagnosis of breast cancer and the classification ratios are described. In the advanced
algorithms, various different features and image data are used. As a result, in this article, ML
methods for breast cancer research are increasing. For this reason, published articles have been
presented to model the risk of breast cancer.

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OUTSIDE THE BOX: CHANGE – VARIOUS FORMS OF CONNECTING PRACTITIONERS IN THE PROCESS OF INTENSIVE KINDERGARTEN DEVELOPMENT

Edita SLUNJSKI

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This article describes the characteristics of the traditional, outdated educational practice in the early
education institution followed by the ways in which a good quality, modern practice can evolve, as well as the
achievements accomplished in some of our institutions. These achievements, as well as the processes that lie within
them, are termed Outside the box. It is emphasized how the quality of the education development in an early and
preschool institution is more concerned with the process than the result (especially not the permanent result), that
is, it presents a developmental rather than a static category. In this sense, action research is highlighted as a
particularly valuable “tool” for the development of educational practices and curriculum of early education. Action
research enables the creation of a community of critical, self-reflective actors who can change the practice on a
much wider scale then the individual, and gradually create a new, more human, and more democratic educational
policy. The ultimate consequences of action research should be viewed in a much broader context than merely as a
means of improving educational practice of certain institutions, that is, as creating a professional learning
community whose participants connect and support each other in a continuous learning and professional
development by strengthening their autonomy and emancipation.
There is a description of various forms of connecting practitioners who show interest and motivation for the
introduction of new forms of work in order to provide each other with professional and emotional support. The
Facebook group Outside the Box is mentioned as a form of linking practitioners for the purpose of discussion and
exchange of professional experience and expertise, to which the next subchapter is devoted. This Facebook group
was created with the intention of bringing together practitioners involved in the process of intensive kindergarten
development through action research so as to enable an exchange of important information, research experiences,
and insights which they gained in the process of developing practices. However, a growing number of interested
practitioners from many different kindergartens gradually joined this group reaching a total number of 4,200
practitioners from different Croatian cities, as well as from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, the USA,
Finland, Norway, and Australia.

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RESEARCH ON RECASTS AS ORAL NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: A REVIEW

Bexi PERDOMO

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English language teachers are constantly facing decision making regarding negative
feedback (NF); hence, they need to have access to sound research. However, teachers usually
have little time for performing extensive literature reviews to make those decisions. Among the
choices for NF are recasts which have been shown to be very frequently used, but: how much do
teachers know about it? Aim: to present the state of the art of oral recast study literature for
language teaching practitioners ‘critical appraisal and posterior decision making in the language
classroom. It was a documental research in the modality of systematic literature review. The
search was carefully conducted under specific search criteria. Articles were filtered by date
(finals of 20th century and first two decades of the 21st) and design (descriptive and
experimental/quasiexperimental). Two main categories arose during the review. Controversial
findings were observed when reviewing studies regarding recasts effectiveness. Some gaps are
still observed in the recast study arena. Research on recast effectiveness is still controversial.
Even though there is a trend of researchers claiming that recasts are not effective and hence not
recommended for the language learning situation, it is still a fertile soil for researchers.

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THE INVESTIGATION OF AIR, HEAT AND SOUND PERMEABILITY OF PERLITE COATED NONWOVEN FABRICS WITH DIFFERENT WEIGHTS

Seyda EYUPOGLU, Habip DAYIOGLU, Nigar MERDAN, Mehmet KILINC

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In this study, polyester (PET) nonwoven fabrics with different weights were coated
with perlite stone powder with particle sizes between 210-590 μm. Before coating procedure,
water repellency treatment was applied to the samples and then the same amount of
polyurethane base coating with perlite stone powder was applied on the nonwoven samples.
After coating, the samples were cured at 100°C for 10 minutes. Finally, air, heat, and sound
permeability of samples were investigated with regards to the weight of samples. According to
the results, the increase in weight of samples caused to improve air permeability and acoustic
insulation of samples. Furthermore, the decrease in weight of samples caused to decrease in the
thermal conductivity coefficient of samples.

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TYPES OF DA`WAH COMMUNICATION USED BY DA`WAH WORKERS IN CONVEYING THE MESSAGE OF ISLAM TO THE ABORIGINALS

Zulkefli bin Aini, Nur Damia Husna binti Nor Sad

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Abstract:

Da`wah communication is the process of conveying information about Islam by a
muslim communicator to the recipient in order to achieve a certain objective that is in line
with what is outlined in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. In the effort to develop an effective da`wah
communication, mastering the types of dakwah communication is imperative in ensuring the
continuation of its messages. This is an addition to other factors that help contribute to the
success of da`wah such as the aspects of preparation, expertise, skills and the mastery of the
da`wah workers when they engage with the target group. Therefore, this study aims to
identify the types of da`wah communication used by the da`wah workers in order to convey
the da`wah messages to the target group which is the aboriginal (Orang Asli) community.
This qualitative study utilizes the case study design. Eight da`wah workers from Penggerak
Masyarakat Orang Asli (PMOA) and Panel Dakwah Muallaf (PDM) in Selangor and a
research informant are chosen for interviews. The data are organised and coded based on the
themes and categories obtained from the complete transcription. Then, the data are analyzed
descriptively. The findings show that there are three initial processes used by da`wah workers
in developing the types of da`wah communication. It involves the initiatiation stage, planning
as well as the preparation to begin a conversation on a certain topic when communicating with
the Orang Asli. In order to ensure effective communication, the da`wah worker is not only
applying verbal communication, but also non-verbal communication in order to open the
channel of communication for da`wah. All the three stages influence the efficacy of the
da`wah messages presented and give a positive impact towards the Orang Asli community.
The implication of this study is on the stakeholders i.e. the organizations that have close
relations to the Orang Asli like Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), states’ religious
councils like Majlis Agama Islam Selangor (MAIS) and non-government organizations
(NGOs) within the scope of improving the the quality of da`wah and indirectly improving the
quality of the use of language among da`wah workers in communicating the message of
da`wah to the Orang Asli community.

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